The VOC colonial period was marred by a number of bitter conflicts between the colonists and the Khoe-speaking indigenes, followed by the Xhosa, both of which they perceived as unwanted competitors for prime farmland. They fled from oppression, and even before 1700 trekking began. The burghers of Graaff Reinet did not surrender until a force had been sent against them; in 1799 and again in 1801 they rose in revolt. From 1652 to 1795, the Dutch East India Company controlled this area, but the United Kingdom incorporated it into the British Empire in 1806. South Africa - South Africa - British occupation of the Cape: When Great Britain went to war with France in 1793, both countries tried to capture the Cape so as to control the important sea route to the East. The great trek was undertaken by the FRENCH in an attempt to escape the british but led them into conflict with the zulu and other africans. The more modern name for the white South Africans descended from Dutch settlers (earlier known as Boers). Davenport, T. R. H., and Christopher Saunders (2000). as the Afrikaners of Cape Dutch origin are more numerous. First, the Dutch (followed by the British) began colonizing South Africa very early on in the 1600s, while other African nations only became European colonies after 1884. Henceforth, an elected Prime Minister and his cabinet had total responsibility for the affairs of the country. The Dutch were the first to really begin colonizing South Africa, with Dutch settlers called Afrikaners fighting violently against the indigenous Khoikhoi people for control. Boer is the specific group within the larger Afrikaans-speaking population. However, the discovery of diamonds around Kimberley and gold in the Transvaal led to a return to instability, particularly because they fuelled the rise to power of the ambitious imperialist Cecil Rhodes. Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe. Afrikaner directly translated means "African," and thus refers to all Afrikaans-speaking people in Africa who have their origins in the Cape Colony founded by Jan Van Riebeeck. They contend that the Boers of the South African Republic (ZAR) and Orange Free State republics were recognised as a separate people or cultural group under international law by the Sand River Convention (which created the South African Republic in 1852), the Bloemfontein Convention (which created the Orange Free State Republic in 1854), the Pretoria Convention (which re-established the independence of the South African Republic 1881), the London Convention (which granted the full independence to the South African Republic in 1884), and the Vereeniging Peace Treaty, which formally ended the Second Anglo-Boer War on 31 May 1902. His action was hastened by the fact that the Khoikhoi, deserting their former masters, flocked to the British standard. Descending from the Sneeuberge, a scene near Graaff-Reinet, by Burchell, Passing Cradock Pass, Outeniqua Mountains, by Charles Collier Michell, An aquatint by Samuel Daniell of Trekboers making camp, Trekboers crossing the Karoo by Charles Davidson Bell.  Van Riebeeck's objective was to secure a harbour of refuge for VOC ships during the long voyages between Europe and Asia. Still the country remained essentially Dutch, and few British settlers were attracted to it. The Boers, also known as Afrikaners, were the descendants of the original Dutch settlers of southern Africa. While European colonialism was first kicked off by Portugal, the Dutch were one of the next major powers to get into the game. However, in 1795, Britain gained control of the country, and many British government officials and citizens settled there. The Boers then fought the Second Boer War in the late 19th and early 20th century against the British in order to ensure the republics of the Transvaal (the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek, or ZAR) and the Orange Free State (OFS), remaining independent, ultimately capitulating in 1902. , Peace were restored to the area when the British, under the Treaty of Amiens returned the Cape Colony to the Dutch Batavian Republic in 1803. In 1658, a year after the first free burghers had been granted their plots of land, the first slaves were imported into South Africa, specifically for agricultural work. In 1652 the Dutch East India Company charged Jan The resulting famine crippled Xhosa resistance and ushered in a long period of stability on the border. In 1657 nine European men were released from the VOC's service, given the status of "free burghers," and granted blocks of land. But the Cape had little charm in comparison. An expedition of the United East India Company (VOC) led by Jan van Riebeeck established a trading post and naval victualing station at the Cape of Good Hope in 1652. Apartheid in South Africa Section 1: Introduction The history of South Africa differs from other African countries in several important ways. Piet Retief, one of the leaders of the Boers during the time, addressed a letter to the government on 22 January 1837 in Grahamstown stating that the Boers did not see any prospect for peace or happiness for their children in a country with such internal commotions. Adriana Stuijt (former South African journalist). The main difference between european colonies and protectorates in africa had to do with their. Hostility between British and Dutch settlers, known as Boers or Afrikaners, led to the Great Trek of 1835-43, a migration of Boers from the Cape who founded Natal, Orange Free State, and Transvaal. They were so impressed with the natural resources of the country that on their return to the Republic, they represented to the directors of the company the great advantages to the Dutch Eastern trade to be had from a properly provided and fortified station of call at the Cape.  By the end of 1847, following annexation by Britain of the former Boer republic of Natalia, nearly all the Boers had left their former republic, which the British renamed Natal. "Open Letter to the Institute for Security Studies", Yolandi Groenewald. Imperialism and Colonialism- South Africa Dutch Colony: The first Europeans to settle in South Africa permanently were members of the Dutch East India Company who founded a colony at the Cape of Good Hope in 1652. The open grasslands of South Africa are known as the ____. The Orange Free State and the Transvaal (officially the South African Republic) were independent countries in southern Africa in the 19th century established largely by Dutch/Afrikaans-speaking settlers known as the Boers (Boer translates to “farmer” in Dutch). A Brief History of South Africa: From Early Settlement to the Boer War Emigrants from Holland wer… a. Afrikaners b. Transvaalers c. Ashanti d. Siedlers. The migration of the trekboere from the Cape Colony into the Eastern Cape parts of South Africa gave rise to a series of conflicts between the Boers and the Xhosas. South Africa Table of Contents. The Boers were unhappy about the inadequate compensation for the abolition of their Khoisan slaves. By this time the Boers had already formed a separate code of laws in preparation for the great trek and were aware of the dangerous territory they were about to enter. Secondly, South Africa gained its [n 1] The term is ultimately derived from Dutch Afrikaans-Hollands meaning "African Dutch". One of the first acts of General Craig had been to abolish torture in the administration of justice. , VOC traders imported thousands of slaves to the Cape of Good Hope from the Dutch East Indies and other parts of Africa. In 1789, so strong had feeling amongst the burghers become that delegates were sent from the Cape to interview the authorities at Amsterdam. Indian slaves from the Dutch colonies had been introduced into the Cape area of South Africa by the Dutch settlers in 1654. On becoming the Cape's Prime Minister in 1890, he instigated a rapid expansion of British influence into the hinterland. It evolved from the Dutch vernacular of South Holland (Hollandic dialect) spoken by the mainly Dutch settlers of what is now South Africa, where it gradually began to develop distinguishing characteristics in the course of the 18th century. In some Dutch colonies there are major ethnic groups of Dutch ancestry descending from emigrated Dutch settlers. In 1775 The Cape government established a boundary between the trekboere and the Xhosas at the Bushmans and Upper Fish Rivers.  There was a degree of cultural assimilation due to Dutch cultural hegemony, that included the almost universal adoption of the Dutch language. Theal, London 1888. The Great Trek occurred between 1835 and the early 1840s. In South Africa the Boers and Cape Dutch are collectively known as the Afrikaners. Khoisan: A popular name for the original inhabitants of most of the territory now known as South Africa. These slaves often married Dutch settlers, and their descendants became known as the Cape Coloureds and the Cape Malays. A rustic characteristic and tradition was developed quite early on as Boer society was born on the frontiers of white settlement and on the outskirts of civilisation. This was known as the Great Trek, and the migrating Boers settled inland, eventually forming the Boer Republics of the South African Republic and the Orange Free State. "Boer, Afrikaner Or White – Which Are You?" European settlement in the area that today is South Africa began in 1652, with the Dutch occupation of Table Bay, now Cape Town, South Africa's parliamentary capital. Immigrants from Germany, Scandinavia, and Switzerland journeyed to Holland in the hope of finding employment at the VOC.  In 1854, the Cape of Good Hope elected its first parliament, on the basis of the multi-racial Cape Qualified Franchise. Boer, (Dutch: “husbandman,” or “farmer”), a South African of Dutch, German, or Huguenot descent, especially one of the early settlers of the Transvaal and the Orange Free State. This right to force into servitude those who might incur the displeasure of the governor or other high officers was not only exercised with reference to the individuals themselves who had received this conditional freedom; it was claimed by the government to be applicable likewise to the children of all such. Dutch settlers at the Cape of Good Hope arrived in 1652 when Jan van Riebeeck came to the Cape to establish a trading post and supply fort for trading vessels plying the Europe-East Indies route. , Many of the colonists who settled directly on the frontier became increasingly independent and localised in their loyalties. They feel that the Western-Cape based Afrikaners – whose ancestors did not trek eastwards or northwards – took advantage of the republican Boers' destitution following the Anglo-Boer War. His name is Autshumato (c.1611-1663) Chief of the Goringhaicona Khoikhoi. They founded the coastal city of Cape Town and settled there. It was many years later, however, in 1652 when the Dutch East India Company established a small settlement at the Cape of Good Hope. The history of colonialism begins with the Dutch in 1652 followed by the British in 19th century. British South Africa. Within half a century, Europe conquered ... (they were called Bushmen by the Dutch – cf. In 1961 it became the Republic of South Africa and obtained its own monetary unit called the Rand. They enjoyed considerable prosperity. . Participants in the Second Anglo-Boer War, Afrikaans is a daughter language of Dutch; see, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFBooij1999 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFJansenSchreuderNeijt2007 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFMennenLeveltGerrits2006 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFBooij2003 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFHiskensAuerKerswill2005 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFHeeringade_Wet2007 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFDeumertVandenbussche2003 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFConradie2005 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFSebba1997 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFLangerDavies2005 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFDeumert2002 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFBerdichevsky2004 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFHolm1989 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFGeertsClyne1992 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFMesthrie1995 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFNieslerLouwRoux2005 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFSebba2007 (, Precis of the Archives of the Cape of Good Hope, January 1652 – December 1658, Riebeeck's Journal, H.C.V. A farmer named Frederick Bezuidenhout refused to obey a summons issued on the complaint of a Khoikhoi, and, firing on the party sent to arrest him, was himself killed by the return fire. This sparked a desire to formally colonize South Africa, and soon Dutch settlers were moving to the colony … ¹ Dutch was the sole official language until 1822, when the British officially replaced Dutch with English. They were called Boers (Dutch for farmer), or Afrikaners – Dutch with a mix of Flemish, German and French Huguenot heritage. Many more Europeans moved in over time including Germans, French, and Dutch settlers. The British seized the region in 1795, sparking a long running conflict with the original Dutch settlers, now known … Some local Radio stations promote the ideals of those who identify with the Boer people, like Radio Rosestad (in Bloemfontein), Overvaal Stereo and Radio Pretoria. The first Europeans to come to South Africa were the Portuguese in 1488. The Company closed the colony against free immigration, kept the whole of the trade in its own hands, combined the administrative, legislative and judicial powers in one body, prescribed to the farmers the nature of the crops they were to grow, demanded a large part of their produce as a kind of tax, and made other exactions. The Dutch claimed that they had purchased the land from Osingkhima leader of the Khokhoi group known as the Goringhaiqua with brandy, tobacco and bread. Following the British annexation of the Transvaal in 1877, Paul Kruger was a key figure in organizing a Boer resistance which led to expulsion of the British from the Transvaal. , The Boers had cut their ties to Europe as they emerged from the Trekboer group.. History of the Emigrant Boers in South Africa, 2nd ed, G.M. The Dutch settlers were therefore forced to look elsewhere for their labour needs. selfstudyhistory.com It remained… In January 1806 during a second invasion, the British reoccupied the colony after the Battle of Blaauwberg. The policies caused the native Khoisan tribes joining the Xhosas in attacks against British forces during the 3rd Frontier War (1799–1803). Please only add the profiles of the Stamvaders/Progenitors who came from The Netherlands/Holland. The principles of Christianity were also introduced at the school resulting in the baptisms of many slaves and indigenous residents. These early colonists, later known as Boers, meaning farmers in Dutch, came as part of an expedition led by Jan van Riebeek, representing the Dutch East India Company. In the 17th century, the southernmost point of Africa where the Atlantic and Indian oceans meet became a desirable half-way haven for the Dutch East India Company which was trading with India. Th… m. and a population of some 60,000, of whom 27,000 were whites, 17,000 free Khoikhoi and the rest slaves, mostly imported blacks and Malays. These latter settlers were supposed to act as a first line of defence The United East India Company transferred its territories and claims to the Batavian Republic (the Revolutionary period Dutch state) in 1798, and went bankrupt in 1799. The administration of the Dutch East India Company was extremely despotic. Nine of the best applicants were selected to use the land for agricultural purposes. The oldest inhabitants of South Africa were known as the San. , In 1671, the Dutch first purchased land from the native Khoikhoi beyond the limits of the fort built by Van Riebeek; this marked the development of the Colony proper. It authorised the forced evictions of thousands of African people from urban centres in South Africa and South West Africa (now Namibia) to what became described colloquially as "Bantustans" or the "original homes", as they were officially referred to, of … "Bang bang – you’re dead", Dr. Tobias Louw. ... Also called Afrikaners, who were the Dutch settlers in South Africa repeatedly driven inland by British settlers.  When one such trekker was asked why he has emigrated he explained, "a drifting spirit was in our hearts, and we ourselves could not understand it. The Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk was the national Church of the South African Republic (1852–1902).  In 1877, the state expanded by annexing Griqualand West and Griqualand East – that is, the Mount Currie district (Kokstad). The Maritz Rebellion (also known as the Boer Revolt, the Five Shilling Rebellion or the Third Boer War) occurred in 1914 at the start of World War I, in which men who supported the re-creation of the old Boer republics rose up against the government of the Union of South Africa because they did not want to side with the British against Germany so soon after the war with the British. In the context of your question, it was both a Dutch and British colony - and oddly enough both sequentially and simultaneously. The British started to settle the eastern border of the cape colony, with the arrival in Port Elizabeth of the 1820 Settlers. Starting in 1903, the largest group emigrated to the Patagonia region of Argentina. false; dutch. The Dutch colonization of the Americas began with the establishment of Dutch trading posts and plantations in the Americas, which preceded the much wider known colonization activities of the Dutch in Asia.While the first Dutch fort in Asia was built in 1600 (in present-day Indonesia), the first forts and settlements along the Essequibo River in Guyana date from the 1590s. With colonialism, which began in South Africa in 1652, came the Slavery and Forced Labour Model.  In South African contexts, "Boers" (Afrikaans: Boere) refers to the descendants of the proto-Afrikaans-speaking settlers of the eastern Cape frontier in Southern Africa during the 18th and much of the 19th century. govt. An internet-based radio station, Boerevolk Radio, serves as a mouthpiece for Boer separatists. The Boers were constantly harassed by cattle thieves and in 1779 a series of skirmishes erupted along the border which initiated the 1st Frontier War. In 1795 the British captured Cape Colony (South Africa). Another group emigrated to British colony of Kenya, from where most returned to South Africa during the 1930s, while a third group under the leadership of General Ben Viljoen emigrated to Mexico and to New Mexico and Texas in the southwestern United States. However, in 1795, Britain gained control of the country, and many British government officials and citizens settled there. de Jong. The Cape Colony, also known as the Cape of Good Hope (Dutch: Kaapkolonie), was a British colony in present-day South Africa named after the Cape of Good Hope. They also began to introduce the first rudimentary rights for the Cape's Black African population and, in 1834, abolished slavery. [need quotation to verify], The term Afrikaner is generally used in modern-day South Africa for the white Afrikaans-speaking population of South Africa (the largest group of White South Africans) including the descendants of the boers.. Zulus What valuable natural resources were discovered in South Africa after the British took control of that country? false (european) Dutch, French, and German settlers and their descendants in South Africa … The more modern name for the white South Africans descended from Dutch settlers (earlier known as Boers). What they had learnt of government from the Dutch East India Company they carried into the wilderness with them. Then in 1652, the first Dutch settlers arrived. As the name suggests, the Dutch Reformed Church (Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk) in South Africa owes its origins and predominantly Calvinist theology to the Reformed Church in the Netherlands. The British occupied the Cape in 1795, ending the Dutch East India Company’s role in the region. In the north, the Orange River, natively known as the ǂNūǃarib (Black River) and subsequently called the Gariep River, served as the boundary for some time, although some land between the river and the southern boundary of Botswana was later added to it. The Boers, also known as Afrikaners, were the descendants of the original Dutch settlers of southern Africa.  A large number of vrijburgers became independent farmers and applied for grants of land, as well as loans of seed and tools, from the Company administration. Through the latter half of the 17th and the whole of the 18th century, troubles arose between the colonists and the government. These people became known as the Afrikaners. Now and again they were able to send out to their eastern possessions a few families who were attracted by the tales of wealth. The British colony was preceded by an earlier Corporate colony that became a Dutch colony of the same name (controlled by France), the Dutch Cape Colony, established in 1652 by the Dutch United East India Company (VOC). Tensions in the Zuurveld led the colonial administration and Boer settlers to evict many of the Xhosa tribes from the area initiating the 4th Frontier War in 1811. Many more Europeans moved in over time including Germans, French, and Dutch settlers. The Cape Colony, also known as the Cape of Good Hope (Dutch: Kaapkolonie), was a British colony in present-day South Africa named after the Cape of Good Hope.The British colony was preceded by an earlier Corporate colony that became a Dutch colony of the same name (controlled by France), the Dutch Cape Colony, established in 1652 by the Dutch United East … As the result of the investigations of a 1685 commissioner, the government worked to recruit a greater variety of immigrants to develop a stable community. It was re-occupied by the British following the Battle of Blaauwberg in 1806, and British possession affirmed with the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814. The Cape government responded with several military expeditions. The rebellion was put down by Louis Botha and Jan Smuts, and the ringleaders received heavy fines and terms of imprisonment. They traditionally dominated South Africa's politics and commercial agricultural sector prior to 1994. They were exempted from taxation for twelve years, but the VOC held a mortgage on their lands. The Dutch settlers in South Africa called themselves the Voortrekkers. However, although the descendants of the settlers have kept many of their traditions alive, they have also borrowed from those around them.  Reflecting the multi-national nature of the early trading companies, the VOC granted vrijburger status to Dutch, Scandinavian and German employees, among others. Boer (/bʊər/) is Dutch and Afrikaans for "farmer". A short history of the Dutch in South Africa, 1652-2010. by Thad Williamson. The supporters of these views feel that the Afrikaner designation (or label) was used from the 1930s onwards as a means of unifying (politically at least) the white Afrikaans speakers of the Western Cape with those of Trekboer and Voortrekker descent (whose ancestors began migrating eastward during the late 17th century and throughout the 18th century and later northward during the Great Trek of the 1830s) in the north of South Africa, where the Boer Republics were established. The desire to wander, known as trekgees, was a notable characteristic of the Boers. After this deputation, some nominal reforms were granted.  The influence of this small body of immigrants on the character of the Dutch settlers was marked. BELGIAN settlers in South Africa were known as Boers. Moreover, the inadequate compensation awarded to slave-owners, and the suspicions engendered by the method of payment, caused much resentment; and in 1835 the farmers again removed to unknown country to escape an unloved government. But their chief wealth was in cattle. Cape residents qualified as voters based on a universal minimum level of property ownership, regardless of race. An incident which occurred in 1815–1816 did much to make permanent the hostility of the frontiersmen to the British. This is not an ethnic designation, but a linguistic one. [dubious – discuss] The Boers are the smaller segment within the Afrikaner designation,[original research?] They stayed for nearly one year and were rescued by a fleet of 12 ships under the command of W.G. Today, descendants of the Boers are commonly referred to as Afrikaners. Sharpeville Massacre South African police shot non-violent protesters (protesting against pass laws) in Sharpeville township; 69 deaths (1960). The Calvinist influence, in such fundamental Calvinist doctrines such as unconditional predestination and divine providence, remains present in a minority of Boer culture, who see their role in society as abiding by the national laws and accepting calamity and hardship as part of their Christian duty. In 1884 and 1885, 14 AFRICA nations met at the Berlin conference to discuss the future of africa. The British sent a fleet of nine warships which anchored at Simon's Town and, following the defeat of the VOC militia at the Battle of Muizenberg, took control of the territory. The shipwreck victims built a small fort named "Sand Fort of the Cape of Good Hope". Bibliography of Dutch Colonial History 17th-18th century, Malacca, Thailand, and Philippines. The two areas which were allocated to the freemen, for agricultural purposes, were named Groeneveld and Dutch Garden. Retief further complained about the severe financial losses which they felt had resulted from from the laws of the British administration. Settlers were so hard to come by that the Swedish crown eventually resorted to forcing petty criminals and military deserters to serve, but the colony was still largely neglected. It was largely to escape oppression that the farmers trekked farther and farther from the seat of government. At that time the colony extended to the line of mountains guarding the vast central plateau, then called Bushmansland, and had an area of about 120,000 sq.  South Africa became a sovereign state in 1931 by the Statute of Westminster. These areas were separated by the Amstel River (Liesbeek River). The word Boer is Dutch for "farmer," and it should come as no surprise to learn that many of the Boers were Dutch Protestants. The end of the 19th century saw a revival of this same tyrannical monopolist policy in the Transvaal. Britain seized Natal in 1843 but the … 15. Major-General Charles Warren annexed the land south of the (usually dry) Molopo River as the colony of British Bechuanaland and proclaimed a protectorate over the land lying to its north. " They continuously claimed land from the local Khoikhoi until the entire cape was colonized. The first Europeans to come to South Africa were the Portuguese in 1488. Less about slaves or ivory, the Anglo-Dutch Wars were actually more about who would be the dominant European naval power. Today, it is known … The White colonial population was small, no more than 25,000 in all, scattered across a territory of 100,000 square miles. They suggest that this developed after the Second Anglo-Boer War and the subsequent establishment of the Union of South Africa in 1910. Soon after Jan van Riebeeck set up a Dutch settlement at the Cape of Good Hope in 1652 to supply provisions to Dutch ships plying to and from India and the the East Indies, people from India were taken to the Cape and sold into slavery to do domestic work for the settlers, as well the dirty and hard work on the farms. The British government paid owners for their slaves, but the Boers complained the payments were too small. The Orange Free State (1854–1902) was named after the Protestant House of Orange in the Netherlands. The Gamtoos River had been declared, c. 1740, the eastern frontier of the colony; but it was soon passed. Their permanent links with Africa were emphasized by the spontaneous & natural way in which the various 18 th Century Dutch dialects evolved into a new tongue, called Afrikaans. Boer is Dutch and Afrikaans for "farmer". The current South Africa is made up of a number of colonies and settlement. 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